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Cobol
Introduction to Cobol Programming
Cobol Basics
Cobol Divisions
The Identification Division
The Environment Division
Data Division
Procedure Division
Defining Data Part 1
Number Formats
Moving and Editing Data
Initializing Data
Defining Data Part 2
Printing and Writing Data
Tables
Boolean Data
HIGH-VALUES and LOW-VALUES
Commands and Logics
Accept and Display
Move
Perform
Cobol IF... THEN...ELSE...
Conditions
Cobol Evaluate
Cobol Strings
Cobol Write
Scope Terminators
File Handling
Reading and Writing
REWRITE, DELETE, and EXTEND
SORT and MERGE
Input and Output Procedure
FILE STATUS (error handling)
Debugging COBOL Code

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Cobol


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 Cobol

COBOL is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. Its name is an acronym, for Common Business Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments.

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Introduction to Cobol Programming
COBOL is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use.
Cobol Basics
Coding Areas, Syntax, The Hello World Program.
Cobol Divisions
The Four Cobol Divisions.
The Identification Division
The identification division tells the computer the name of the program and supplies other documentation concerning the program's author.
The Environment Division
This division tells the computer what the program will be interacting with (i.e. its environment) such as printers, disk drives, other files etc.
Data Division
The data division is where memory space in the computer is allocated to data and identifiers that are to be used by the program.
Procedure Division
The procedure division is where the logic of the program actually found.
Defining Data Part 1
A large portion of any COBOL program consists of the data division and how the data is defined and manipulated.
Number Formats
There are three types of number formats.
Moving and Editing Data
Care must be taken when moving (using the MOVE verb) data to an item.
Initializing Data
During a program run it is often necessary to reset an item, or group of items, back to zero (or other value), or back to a certain literal.
Defining Data Part 2
How data is prepared for printing or for writing to a file is largely controlled by how it is defined in the data division.
Printing and Writing Data
The specific commands used for printing or writing data are given in the Commands and logic sections.
Tables
Also known as an array in other languages, a table is a group of data associated with a single item name.
Boolean Data
Boolean data is either TRUE or FALSE.
HIGH-VALUES and LOW-VALUES
There are occasions when you may wish to set a variable to an infinitely high or infinitely low number.
Commands and Logics
Commands and Logics
Accept and Display
To enter data via the console during a program run, use the ACCEPT verb.
Move
The MOVE statement has already been extensively used in the examples in the Defining Data section.
Perform
The PERFORM verb is one of the most important in COBOL (alongside MOVE).
Cobol IF... THEN...ELSE...
Another fundamental part of programming logic is the ability to offer a choice of what to do that depends on the conditions asked of.
Conditions
There are four types of conditions that could be tested either in a PERFORM, IF..THEN, or EVALUATE.
Cobol Evaluate
If there are a large number of conditional alternatives, then using a large number of nested IF statements can be messy.
Cobol Strings
STRING will move a series of strings into a destination string.
Cobol Write
To output data to the printer or to a file, the verb WRITE is used.
Scope Terminators
In the section COBOL basics I mentioned the full stop (period).
File Handling
This section outlines how data can read from and written to files.
Reading and Writing
In order to either read, alter or create a new file, we must first open it (even if it doesn't even exist yet).
REWRITE, DELETE, and EXTEND
In order to ammend a record in a file, such as to update data (see League Table Program in sample programs section)
SORT and MERGE
If you wished to take a file of unordered records and produce a new file of these records sorted into ascending or descending order of a field you would use SORT.
Input and Output Procedure
The SORT statement above sorted all the records in the file into a new file.
FILE STATUS (error handling)
A number of errors can occur that result from file input/output that programmer may wish to be able to deal with in order to avoid unexpected program termination.
Debugging COBOL Code
Debugging COBOL code
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