Academic Tutorials



English | French | Portugese | German | Italian
Home Advertise Payments Recommended Websites Interview Questions FAQs
News Source Codes E-Books Downloads Jobs Web Hosting
Chats

Cobol
Introduction to Cobol Programming
Cobol Basics
Cobol Divisions
The Identification Division
The Environment Division
Data Division
Procedure Division
Defining Data Part 1
Number Formats
Moving and Editing Data
Initializing Data
Defining Data Part 2
Printing and Writing Data
Tables
Boolean Data
HIGH-VALUES and LOW-VALUES
Commands and Logics
Accept and Display
Move
Perform
Cobol IF... THEN...ELSE...
Conditions
Cobol Evaluate
Cobol Strings
Cobol Write
Scope Terminators
File Handling
Reading and Writing
REWRITE, DELETE, and EXTEND
SORT and MERGE
Input and Output Procedure
FILE STATUS (error handling)
Debugging COBOL Code

HTML Tutorials
HTML Tutorial
XHTML Tutorial
CSS Tutorial
TCP/IP Tutorial
CSS 1.0
CSS 2.0
HLML
XML Tutorials
XML Tutorial
XSL Tutorial
XSLT Tutorial
DTD Tutorial
Schema Tutorial
XForms Tutorial
XSL-FO Tutorial
XML DOM Tutorial
XLink Tutorial
XQuery Tutorial
XPath Tutorial
XPointer Tutorial
RDF Tutorial
SOAP Tutorial
WSDL Tutorial
RSS Tutorial
WAP Tutorial
Web Services Tutorial
Browser Scripting
JavaScript Tutorial
VBScript Tutorial
DHTML Tutorial
HTML DOM Tutorial
WMLScript Tutorial
E4X Tutorial
Server Scripting
ASP Tutorial
PERL Tutorial
SQL Tutorial
ADO Tutorial
CVS
Python
Apple Script
PL/SQL Tutorial
SQL Server
PHP
.NET (dotnet)
Microsoft.Net
ASP.Net
.Net Mobile
C# : C Sharp
ADO.NET
VB.NET
VC++
Multimedia
SVG Tutorial
Flash Tutorial
Media Tutorial
SMIL Tutorial
Photoshop Tutorial
Gimp Tutorial
Matlab
Gnuplot Programming
GIF Animation Tutorial
Scientific Visualization Tutorial
Graphics
Web Building
Web Browsers
Web Hosting
W3C Tutorial
Web Building
Web Quality
Web Semantic
Web Careers
Weblogic Tutorial
SEO
Web Site Hosting
Domain Name
Java Tutorials
Java Tutorial
JSP Tutorial
Servlets Tutorial
Struts Tutorial
EJB Tutorial
JMS Tutorial
JMX Tutorial
Eclipse
J2ME
JBOSS
Programming Langauges
C Tutorial
C++ Tutorial
Visual Basic Tutorial
Data Structures Using C
Cobol
Assembly Language
Mainframe
Forth Programming
Lisp Programming
Pascal
Delphi
Fortran
OOPs
Data Warehousing
CGI Programming
Emacs Tutorial
Gnome
ILU
Soft Skills
Communication Skills
Time Management
Project Management
Team Work
Leadership Skills
Corporate Communication
Negotiation Skills
Database Tutorials
Oracle
MySQL
Operating System
BSD
Symbian
Unix
Internet
IP-Masquerading
IPC
MIDI
Software Testing
Testing
Firewalls
SAP Module
ERP
ABAP
Business Warehousing
SAP Basis
Material Management
Sales & Distribution
Human Resource
Netweaver
Customer Relationship Management
Production and Planning
Networking Programming
Corba Tutorial
Networking Tutorial
Microsoft Office
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft Publisher
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Front Page
Microsoft InfoPath
Microsoft Access
Accounting
Financial Accounting
Managerial Accounting
Network Sites


Cobol Basics


Previoushome Next






COBOL Basics


A D V E R T I S E M E N T

  • Coding Areas
  • Syntax
  • The Hello World Program
  •  

    Coding Areas

    If you look at the COBOL coding in later sections (e.g. League Table program in the Sample code section) the specific positions of coding elements are important for the compiler to understand. Essentially, the first 6 spaces are ignored by the compiler and are usually used by the programmer for line numbers. These numbers arenot the same as those in BASIC where the line number is used as part of the logic (e.g. GOTO 280, sending the logic to line 280).

    The seventh position is called the continuation area. Only certain characters ever appear here, these being:

    * (asterisk), / (solidus or forward slash), or - (hyphen). The asterisk is used to precede a comment, i.e. all that follows is ignored by the compiler. The solidus is used to indicate a page break when printing coding from the compiler, but it too can be used as comment since the rest of the line is ignored by the compiler. The hyphen is used as a continuation marker, i.e. when a quoted literal needs to be extended over to the next line. It is not for continuing a statement onto the next line (this is unnecessary*) and also cannot be used to continue a COBOL word. (*You can write any COBOL statement over as many lines as you like, so long as you stay in the correct coding region and don't split strings.)

         000200*Here is a comment.
         000210/A new line for printing and a comment.
         000220
           :
         000340       DISPLAY 'This might be a very long string that
         000350-    'needs to be continued onto the next line'
    
    
     

    Positions 8 to 11 and 12 to 72 are called area A and area B, respectively. These are used in specific instances that will be detailed in later sections.

     

    Summary
    Positions Designation
     
             1 to 6
    
                  7  
    
            8 to 11  
    
           12 to 72
    
    
    line code
    
    continuation area
    
    area A
    
    area B
    
    
     
     

     


    Syntax

    Identifier names

    User-defined names must conform to the following rules:

    • Must only consist of alphabetic and numeric characters and/or hyphens
    • The name must contain at least one alphabetic character
    • Must be no more than 30 characters
    • When using hyphens, they must not appear at the beginning or end of the name
    Some examples of legal names:

    A123
    RecordCount-1
    WAGE-IN
    Tot-2-out

    Like all COBOL code, the compiler will not distinguish between upper and lower case letters (except within quotes).

    Lastly, COBOL has a large list of reserved words that cannot be used as identifier names. A list of COBOL reserved words is given elsewhere.  


    Punctuation

    The full stop (period) is the most important punctuation mark used, and its use will be detailed later (see Scope terminators). Generally, every line of the IDENTIFICATION, ENVIRONMENT, and DATA DIVISION end in a period.

    Quotation marks, either single or double, are used to surround quoted literals (and when calling a sub-program). However, donāt mix them when surrounding the literal, e.g.

    " This is bad ā

    " but this is ok "

    Commas and semi-colons are also used to separate lists of identifiers, e.g.
    MOVE 2 TO DATA-ITEM-1, DATA-ITEM-2, DATA-ITEM-3
    A space must follow the comma/semi-colon. They are optional however, and a space would suffice, but it does add to clarity.

     

    Spelling

    Since COBOL was developed in the USA, the spelling of words is American, e.g. INITIALIZE or ORGANIZATION (using Z rather than S). Brits be warned!

    In many cases, abbreviations and alternative spellings are available (see reserved word list), e.g. ZERO ZEROS ZEROES all mean the same thing. Likewise, LINE and LINES, PICTURE and PIC, THROUGH and THRU.
     

          The 'Hello World' Program

    As is traditional for all introductory lessons for a programming language, here's a 'Hello World' program:

     

    000010 IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
    000020 PROGRAM-ID. HELLO-WORLD-PROG.
    000030 AUTHOR. TIMOTHY R P BROWN.
    000040*The standard Hello world program
    000050 000060 ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.
    000070 000080 DATA DIVISION
    . 000090 WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
    000100 01 TEXT-OUT PIC X(12) VALUE 'Hello World!'.
    000110 000120 PROCEDURE DIVISION.
    000130 MAIN-PARAGRAPH.
    000140 DISPLAY TEXT-OUT
    000150 STOP RUN.


    Be the first one to comment on this page.




      Cobol eBooks
    More Links » »
     
     Cobol FAQs
    More Links » »
     
     Cobol Interview Questions
    More Links » »
     
     Cobol Articles
    More Links » »
     
     Cobol News
    More Links » »
     
     Cobol Jobs
    More Links » »

    Share And Enjoy:These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages.
    • blinkbits
    • BlinkList
    • blogmarks
    • co.mments
    • connotea
    • del.icio.us
    • De.lirio.us
    • digg
    • Fark
    • feedmelinks
    • Furl
    • LinkaGoGo
    • Ma.gnolia
    • NewsVine
    • Netvouz
    • RawSugar
    • Reddit
    • scuttle
    • Shadows
    • Simpy
    • Smarking
    • Spurl
    • TailRank
    • Wists
    • YahooMyWeb

    Previoushome Next

    Keywords: Cobol Basics, cobol programming language, cobol language programming tutorial pdf, history of cobol programming, basic cobol programming, syntax use in cobol programming, cobol programming software download, cobol programming code, learn cobol programming, cobol performs syntax, cobol 2008

    HTML Quizzes
    HTML Quiz
    XHTML Quiz
    CSS Quiz
    TCP/IP Quiz
    CSS 1.0 Quiz
    CSS 2.0 Quiz
    HLML Quiz
    XML Quizzes
    XML Quiz
    XSL Quiz
    XSLT Quiz
    DTD Quiz
    Schema Quiz
    XForms Quiz
    XSL-FO Quiz
    XML DOM Quiz
    XLink Quiz
    XQuery Quiz
    XPath Quiz
    XPointer Quiz
    RDF Quiz
    SOAP Quiz
    WSDL Quiz
    RSS Quiz
    WAP Quiz
    Web Services Quiz
    Browser Scripting Quizzes
    JavaScript Quiz
    VBScript Quiz
    DHTML Quiz
    HTML DOM Quiz
    WMLScript Quiz
    E4X Quiz
    Server Scripting Quizzes
    ASP Quiz
    PERL Quiz
    SQL Quiz
    ADO Quiz
    CVS Quiz
    Python Quiz
    Apple Script Quiz
    PL/SQL Quiz
    SQL Server Quiz
    PHP Quiz
    .NET (dotnet) Quizzes
    Microsoft.Net Quiz
    ASP.Net Quiz
    .Net Mobile Quiz
    C# : C Sharp Quiz
    ADO.NET Quiz
    VB.NET Quiz
    VC++ Quiz
    Multimedia Quizzes
    SVG Quiz
    Flash Quiz
    Media Quiz
    SMIL Quiz
    Photoshop Quiz
    Gimp Quiz
    Matlab Quiz
    Gnuplot Programming Quiz
    GIF Animation Quiz
    Scientific Visualization Quiz
    Graphics Quiz
    Web Building Quizzes
    Web Browsers Quiz
    Web Hosting Quiz
    W3C Quiz
    Web Building Quiz
    Web Quality Quiz
    Web Semantic Quiz
    Web Careers Quiz
    Weblogic Quiz
    SEO Quiz
    Web Site Hosting Quiz
    Domain Name Quiz
    Java Quizzes
    Java Quiz
    JSP Quiz
    Servlets Quiz
    Struts Quiz
    EJB Quiz
    JMS Quiz
    JMX Quiz
    Eclipse Quiz
    J2ME Quiz
    JBOSS Quiz
    Programming Langauges Quizzes
    C Quiz
    C++ Quiz
    Visual Basic Quiz
    Data Structures Using C Quiz
    Cobol Quiz
    Assembly Language Quiz
    Mainframe Quiz
    Forth Programming Quiz
    Lisp Programming Quiz
    Pascal Quiz
    Delphi Quiz
    Fortran Quiz
    OOPs Quiz
    Data Warehousing Quiz
    CGI Programming Quiz
    Emacs Quiz
    Gnome Quiz
    ILU Quiz
    Soft Skills Quizzes
    Communication Skills Quiz
    Time Management Quiz
    Project Management Quiz
    Team Work Quiz
    Leadership Skills Quiz
    Corporate Communication Quiz
    Negotiation Skills Quiz
    Database Quizzes
    Oracle Quiz
    MySQL Quiz
    Operating System Quizzes
    BSD Quiz
    Symbian Quiz
    Unix Quiz
    Internet Quiz
    IP-Masquerading Quiz
    IPC Quiz
    MIDI Quiz
    Software Testing Quizzes
    Testing Quiz
    Firewalls Quiz
    SAP Module Quizzes
    ERP Quiz
    ABAP Quiz
    Business Warehousing Quiz
    SAP Basis Quiz
    Material Management Quiz
    Sales & Distribution Quiz
    Human Resource Quiz
    Netweaver Quiz
    Customer Relationship Management Quiz
    Production and Planning Quiz
    Networking Programming Quizzes
    Corba Quiz
    Networking Quiz
    Microsoft Office Quizzes
    Microsoft Word Quiz
    Microsoft Outlook Quiz
    Microsoft PowerPoint Quiz
    Microsoft Publisher Quiz
    Microsoft Excel Quiz
    Microsoft Front Page Quiz
    Microsoft InfoPath Quiz
    Microsoft Access Quiz
    Accounting Quizzes
    Financial Accounting Quiz
    Managerial Accounting Quiz
    Testimonials | Contact Us | Link to Us | Site Map
    Copyright ? 2008. Academic Tutorials.com. All rights reserved Privacy Policies | About Us
    Our Portals : Academic Tutorials | Best eBooksworld | Beyond Stats | City Details | Interview Questions | Discussions World | Excellent Mobiles | Free Bangalore | Give Me The Code | Gog Logo | Indian Free Ads | Jobs Assist | New Interview Questions | One Stop FAQs | One Stop GATE | One Stop GRE | One Stop IAS | One Stop MBA | One Stop SAP | One Stop Testing | Webhosting in India | Dedicated Server in India | Sirf Dosti | Source Codes World | Tasty Food | Tech Archive | Testing Interview Questions | Tests World | The Galz | Top Masala | Vyom | Vyom eBooks | Vyom International | Vyom Links | Vyoms | Vyom World | Important Websites
    Copyright ? 2003-2021 Vyom Technosoft Pvt. Ltd., All Rights Reserved.