Academic Tutorials



English | French | Portugese | German | Italian
Home Advertise Payments Recommended Websites Interview Questions FAQs
News Source Codes E-Books Downloads Jobs Web Hosting
Chats

Financial Accounting
Financial Accounting Introduction
Financial Accounting Statements
Financial Accounting Economic Events
Financial Accounting Accruals & Deferrals
Financial Accounting Reporting Results
Financial Accounting Merchandising
Financial Accounting Assets
Financial Accounting Cost of Goods
Financial Accounting Depreciation
Financial Accounting Liabilities

HTML Tutorials
HTML Tutorial
XHTML Tutorial
CSS Tutorial
TCP/IP Tutorial
CSS 1.0
CSS 2.0
HLML
XML Tutorials
XML Tutorial
XSL Tutorial
XSLT Tutorial
DTD Tutorial
Schema Tutorial
XForms Tutorial
XSL-FO Tutorial
XML DOM Tutorial
XLink Tutorial
XQuery Tutorial
XPath Tutorial
XPointer Tutorial
RDF Tutorial
SOAP Tutorial
WSDL Tutorial
RSS Tutorial
WAP Tutorial
Web Services Tutorial
Browser Scripting
JavaScript Tutorial
VBScript Tutorial
DHTML Tutorial
HTML DOM Tutorial
WMLScript Tutorial
E4X Tutorial
Server Scripting
ASP Tutorial
PERL Tutorial
SQL Tutorial
ADO Tutorial
CVS
Python
Apple Script
PL/SQL Tutorial
SQL Server
PHP
.NET (dotnet)
Microsoft.Net
ASP.Net
.Net Mobile
C# : C Sharp
ADO.NET
VB.NET
VC++
Multimedia
SVG Tutorial
Flash Tutorial
Media Tutorial
SMIL Tutorial
Photoshop Tutorial
Gimp Tutorial
Matlab
Gnuplot Programming
GIF Animation Tutorial
Scientific Visualization Tutorial
Graphics
Web Building
Web Browsers
Web Hosting
W3C Tutorial
Web Building
Web Quality
Web Semantic
Web Careers
Weblogic Tutorial
SEO
Web Site Hosting
Domain Name
Java Tutorials
Java Tutorial
JSP Tutorial
Servlets Tutorial
Struts Tutorial
EJB Tutorial
JMS Tutorial
JMX Tutorial
Eclipse
J2ME
JBOSS
Programming Langauges
C Tutorial
C++ Tutorial
Visual Basic Tutorial
Data Structures Using C
Cobol
Assembly Language
Mainframe
Forth Programming
Lisp Programming
Pascal
Delphi
Fortran
OOPs
Data Warehousing
CGI Programming
Emacs Tutorial
Gnome
ILU
Soft Skills
Communication Skills
Time Management
Project Management
Team Work
Leadership Skills
Corporate Communication
Negotiation Skills
Database Tutorials
Oracle
MySQL
Operating System
BSD
Symbian
Unix
Internet
IP-Masquerading
IPC
MIDI
Software Testing
Testing
Firewalls
SAP Module
ERP
ABAP
Business Warehousing
SAP Basis
Material Management
Sales & Distribution
Human Resource
Netweaver
Customer Relationship Management
Production and Planning
Networking Programming
Corba Tutorial
Networking Tutorial
Microsoft Office
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft Publisher
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Front Page
Microsoft InfoPath
Microsoft Access
Accounting
Financial Accounting
Managerial Accounting
Network Sites


Plant Assets and Depreciation


Previoushome Next






Plant Assets and Depreciation


A D V E R T I S E M E N T

In earlier chapters you learned the basics of depreciation. This chapter explains a little more about how depreciation expense is calculated. It also shows the other significant events in the life of plant assets: the purchase and retirement of those assets.

Depreciation expense spreads the cost of major equipment and assets over a period of time that spans a number of years. Amortization is used to allocate the cost of intangible assets, such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, and franchises. Depletion is used to record the cost of natural resources extracted from the earth.

There are three main events in the life of any asset:

  1. acquisition
  2. useful life
  3. disposal or retirement
We will make journal entries for each of these events. Over the useful life we will enter depreciation expense. At the end of the life we will record any gain or loss at the time of disposal or retirement of the asset. Sometimes assets are traded for other assets, and that must be accounted for in the same manner as a disposal or retirement.

Fixed asset acquisition


Fixed asset accounts are debited for the actual cost of fixed assets. The correct account should be debited. Some companies use a Fixed Asset Subsidiary Ledger and show a control account on the Balance Sheet, called Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) or something similar. In these cases all fixed assets acquisitions debit PPE and the subsidiary ledger carries the details pertaining to the asset.

 

Depreciable cost


Buildings, equipment, vehicles, computers, furniture and fixtures are all examples of depreciable assets. We will depreciate the depreciable cost of assets. This includes the purchase price paid, sales tax, shipping and installation costs, and possibly incidental costs if they are material. Cost of fixing damage caused during shipping and installation is treated as  a Repair Expense.

Some costs are incidental to buying new equipment. A specialist might be hired to install a large printing press, or other specialized, complex piece of manufacturing equipment. This type of cost is included in the depreciable cost of the asset. 

Sometimes employees have to be trained. The cost of training may be considered part of the depreciable cost, it the amount is material to the purchase of the asset. A brief training session for one or two machine operators will probably be an immaterial amount. 

The cost of  training the entire company's personnel when a new computer system is installed would probably be a material amount, especially in a large company. Every employee might require a day's training or more in the new system. The loss of productivity would be a material amount, and should be classified as part of the depreciable cost of the asset.


Recording Asset Acquisitions


If a company buys land, building, equipment etc. all at the same time, the total purchase price has to be divided correctly among the various assets.

Land is a non-depreciable asset. It falls into its own category in the books and on the Balance Sheet. Don't include land costs with other fixed asset costs, such as buildings. They must always be entered separately. Buildings will be depreciated; land will not be depreciated. 

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Apr-15
Land
$5,000
 
  Building
$45,000
 
     Cash  
$10,000
     Mortgage Note Payable  
$40,000
  To record purchase of land and building    
       
Apr-30 Manufacturing Equipment
$7,000
 
  Computers and peripherals
$10,000
 
  Computer software
$3,000
 
     Accounts Payable  
$20,000
  To record purchase of equipment, computers and software    

The Useful Life of an asset, is the period of time the company expects to use the asset in the business. It is also important that the asset be used as it is intended, and for the production of income. For instance, a computer that is being used as a doorstop is not contributing to the production of income, and it is also not being used as it was intended. 

[Of course, at this point some very clever student will say something like, "What if the computer is used as part of an art project displayed in the foyer of an office building? It's not being used as intended nor in the production of income." Well, young Einstein, objects d'art are Investments, not depreciable plant assets. Nice try, but no banana for the monkey.]


Why do assets depreciate?


For Federal Income Tax purposes, depreciation is referred to as cost recovery. The government allows you to use the cost of plant assets to offset income. You recover your cost a little bit at a time, over a number of years. Each year you reduce your income tax expense, by an amount relative to the cost recovery amount for that year. It's a slightly strange concept if you're not involved in preparing income taxes. But it does make sense if you think about it a bit.

For financial statement purposes, depreciation reflects a number of different influences that each affect an asset over its useful life.

  • recognize physical deterioration
  • recognize obsolescence
  • recognize a reduction in market value
  • recognize benefits derived from using the asset
  • apply a logical, systematic cost allocation over a relevant period of time
  • apply the matching principle
Each of these is important to a company. When assets are purchased, the cost is reflected in the Balance Sheet. Depreciation expense transfers that cost to the Income Statement in order to reflect the effect of the items listed above, in the financial statements. 

Usually, at this point, students are a showing a slight glaze over their eyes. I then reiterate that depreciation expense reduces income, which in turn cuts income taxes. Cutting our taxes, that's something most of us can relate to. So depreciation is a good thing, an important thing, a joyous and wonderful thing. 

[you may now take a few moments to celebrate the joys of depreciation ...ahhhhh.]


Depreciation Methods


We will study a couple of depreciation methods. There are other methods. If you study international accounting, you will find that other countries deal with these issues in a very different way than we do in the US. But we're #1, so we must be right (hee, hee).
 

Depreciation Method my silly comments
Straight-Line Method causes problems with my spell checker because of the hyphenated word
Declining-Balance Method oh, no. another hyphenated word. my spell checker is not happy today
MACRS (income tax method)  US congress made up this word. its not in my spell checker dictionary either. whatever they were drinking that night, I want a bottle of it.
 

OK, let's try this again.

Depreciation Method my serious comments
Straight-Line Method an easy method that allocates an equal amount of depreciation to each time period; salvage value is used
Declining-Balance Method
(200% & 150% DB)
allocates more depreciation expense to the early years of an asset's life, when it is new; since there should be less down-time and fewer repairs in the early years, the company should get more use out of the asset in the beginning of it's life; no salvage value is used.
MACRS (income tax method)  uses the double-declining balance method, but you only take one-half year's depreciation in the first year, and then you switch to the straight-line method in the middle of the asset's life, so a 5 year asset takes 6 years to depreciate. salvage value? salvage value? we don't need no stinking salvage value!! I still want a bottle of whatever they were drinking when they dreamed this one up. 
 

[It is a little known fact that the US congress is responsible for the rapid growth of the computer industry during the 1980s and 1990s. The MACRS depreciation rules were so complex everyone had to buy computers just to do the calculations each year. Millions of computers were sold, just to calculate MACRS depreciation  ........ OK, I'm just kidding. You didn't really think I was serious, did you?. Hey, this is week 8, we're almost done.]


Selling or disposing of Fixed Assets
After selling or disposing of fixed assets, the company no longer has the asset. This requires a journal entry to remove everything in the accounting records relating to the asset. 

The depreciable cost and accumulated depreciation relating to the asset must both be removed, or reversed. There might be a gain or loss when disposing of assets. There might also be incidental costs relating to disposing of the asset. All these things should be included in the journal entry recording the disposal.

Let's assume on September 1, the ledger shows these balances for a piece of equipment.

General Ledger
Equipment
 Date  Description
 Debit
 Credit
Balance
Sep-1 Balance forward
$7000
 
$7000
         
Accumulated Depreciation - Equipment
 Date  Description
 Debit
 Credit
Balance
Sep-1 Balance forward  
$5600
($5600)
         

Removing these amounts from the books with a journal entry
When assets disposed of there might be a gain, loss or a wash (no gain or loss). In either case all such journal entries will start from the same place, removing the related asset cost and accumulated depreciation. This journal entry does not balance; is the beginnings of a journal entry, and must be completed when all the information is available.

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Sep-15
Accumulated Depreciation
$5,600
 
       
       
     Equipment  
$7,000
  To record disposal of equipment    

Notice the exact opposite of the account balances is entered for each account. This causes the account balances to go to zero after this journal entry is posted.

General Ledger
Equipment
 Date  Description
 Debit
 Credit
Balance
Sep-1 Balance forward
$7000
 
$7000
Sep-15 Disposal of asset  
$7000
$0 
Accumulated Depreciation - Equipment
 Date  Description
 Debit
 Credit
Balance
Sep-1 Balance forward  
$5600
($5600)
Sep-15 Disposal of asset
$5600
 
$0 

The asset and related accumulated depreciation have both been removed from the books.
 

Calculating Book Value


Book Value is the difference between the asset cost and accumulated depreciation:
 

Equipment cost
$  7,000
Less: accumulated depreciation
-5,600
Book Value before sale
$  1,400
 

Gains and losses are calculated using the Book Value.
 


Equipment sold for a Gain


If the equipment is sold for more than its book value there will be a gain. Gains are similar to revenues, and will be recorded with a credit entry. Let's say the equipment is sold on September 15 for $2,000. The gain will be:
 

Selling Price
$  2,000
Less: Book Value
- 1,400
Gain
$    600
 

We'll begin with the journal entry we started above, and add the additional information, the selling price and gain or loss, in the right places.

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Sep-15
Accumulated Depreciation
$5,600
 
  Cash
$2,000
 
     Gain on disposal of equipment  
$ 600
     Equipment  
$7,000
  To record disposal of equipment    

The journal entry is now in balance. Did you notice what I did? I started the journal entry with what I already knew - the cost and accumulated depreciation. I left 2 lines blank in the middle of the journal entry, so the sales price and gain or loss could be recorded. 
 

Equipment sold for a Loss

 
If the equipment is sold for less than its book value there will be a loss. Losses are similar to expenses, and will be recorded with a debit entry. Let's say the equipment is sold on September 15 for $1,000. The loss will be:
 

Selling Price
$  1,000 
Less: Book Value
- 1,400 
Loss
($   400)
 

We'll begin with the journal entry we started above, and add the additional information, the selling price and gain or loss, in the right places.

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Sep-15
Accumulated Depreciation
$5,600
 
  Cash
$1,000
 
  Loss on disposal of equipment
 $  400
 
     Equipment  
$7,000
  To record disposal of equipment    

 

Equipment sold for a Wash


If the equipment is sold equal to its book value there will be a wash. Let's say the equipment is sold on September 15 for $1,400. 
 

Selling Price
$  1,400 
Less: Book Value
- 1,400 
Wash
$        0 
 

We'll begin with the journal entry we started above, and add the additional information, the selling price and gain or loss, in the right places. In this case there is a wash, so no gain or loss is recorded. The equipment is simply removed from the books.

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Sep-15
Accumulated Depreciation
$5,600
 
  Cash
$1,400
 
     Equipment  
$7,000
  To record disposal of equipment    

 

Equipment Junked


If the equipment is junked there will be a loss equal to its book value. We call this abandonment. The item is usually just thrown in the trash, or hauled to the dump. Sometimes a company will have to pay to have the item hauled away. Incidental costs are revenue expenditures, and are not included in calculating the capital gain or loss.
 

Selling Price
$        0 
Less: Book Value
- 1,400 
Loss
($ 1,400)
 

We'll begin with the journal entry we started above, and add the additional information, the selling price and gain or loss, in the right places. 

General Journal
Date
Account
Debit
Credit
Sep-15
Accumulated Depreciation
$5,600
 
  Loss on abandonment of equipment
$1,400
 
     Equipment  
$7,000
  To record abandonment of equipment    

 

Intangible Assets


Intangibles are assets that have no physical existence. They are legal assets or accounting assets, such as copyrights, patents, trademarks or goodwill. We use a simple form of amortization, usually straight-line, to allocate the cost of these items to expenses. 



Be the first one to comment on this page.




  Financial Accounting eBooks

No eBooks on Financial Accounting could be found as of now.

 
 Financial Accounting FAQs
More Links » »
 
 Financial Accounting Interview Questions
More Links » »
 
 Financial Accounting Articles

No Financial Accounting Articles could be found as of now.

 
 Financial Accounting News

No News on Financial Accounting could be found as of now.

 
 Financial Accounting Jobs

No Financial Accounting Articles could be found as of now.


Share And Enjoy:These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages.
  • blinkbits
  • BlinkList
  • blogmarks
  • co.mments
  • connotea
  • del.icio.us
  • De.lirio.us
  • digg
  • Fark
  • feedmelinks
  • Furl
  • LinkaGoGo
  • Ma.gnolia
  • NewsVine
  • Netvouz
  • RawSugar
  • Reddit
  • scuttle
  • Shadows
  • Simpy
  • Smarking
  • Spurl
  • TailRank
  • Wists
  • YahooMyWeb

Previoushome Next

Keywords: Plant Assets and Depreciation, Financial Accounting , FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING , Financial Accounting tutorial,Accounting , Accounting Tutorial, Financial Accounting tutorial pdf, history of Financial Accounting , learn Financial Accounting

HTML Quizzes
HTML Quiz
XHTML Quiz
CSS Quiz
TCP/IP Quiz
CSS 1.0 Quiz
CSS 2.0 Quiz
HLML Quiz
XML Quizzes
XML Quiz
XSL Quiz
XSLT Quiz
DTD Quiz
Schema Quiz
XForms Quiz
XSL-FO Quiz
XML DOM Quiz
XLink Quiz
XQuery Quiz
XPath Quiz
XPointer Quiz
RDF Quiz
SOAP Quiz
WSDL Quiz
RSS Quiz
WAP Quiz
Web Services Quiz
Browser Scripting Quizzes
JavaScript Quiz
VBScript Quiz
DHTML Quiz
HTML DOM Quiz
WMLScript Quiz
E4X Quiz
Server Scripting Quizzes
ASP Quiz
PERL Quiz
SQL Quiz
ADO Quiz
CVS Quiz
Python Quiz
Apple Script Quiz
PL/SQL Quiz
SQL Server Quiz
PHP Quiz
.NET (dotnet) Quizzes
Microsoft.Net Quiz
ASP.Net Quiz
.Net Mobile Quiz
C# : C Sharp Quiz
ADO.NET Quiz
VB.NET Quiz
VC++ Quiz
Multimedia Quizzes
SVG Quiz
Flash Quiz
Media Quiz
SMIL Quiz
Photoshop Quiz
Gimp Quiz
Matlab Quiz
Gnuplot Programming Quiz
GIF Animation Quiz
Scientific Visualization Quiz
Graphics Quiz
Web Building Quizzes
Web Browsers Quiz
Web Hosting Quiz
W3C Quiz
Web Building Quiz
Web Quality Quiz
Web Semantic Quiz
Web Careers Quiz
Weblogic Quiz
SEO Quiz
Web Site Hosting Quiz
Domain Name Quiz
Java Quizzes
Java Quiz
JSP Quiz
Servlets Quiz
Struts Quiz
EJB Quiz
JMS Quiz
JMX Quiz
Eclipse Quiz
J2ME Quiz
JBOSS Quiz
Programming Langauges Quizzes
C Quiz
C++ Quiz
Visual Basic Quiz
Data Structures Using C Quiz
Cobol Quiz
Assembly Language Quiz
Mainframe Quiz
Forth Programming Quiz
Lisp Programming Quiz
Pascal Quiz
Delphi Quiz
Fortran Quiz
OOPs Quiz
Data Warehousing Quiz
CGI Programming Quiz
Emacs Quiz
Gnome Quiz
ILU Quiz
Soft Skills Quizzes
Communication Skills Quiz
Time Management Quiz
Project Management Quiz
Team Work Quiz
Leadership Skills Quiz
Corporate Communication Quiz
Negotiation Skills Quiz
Database Quizzes
Oracle Quiz
MySQL Quiz
Operating System Quizzes
BSD Quiz
Symbian Quiz
Unix Quiz
Internet Quiz
IP-Masquerading Quiz
IPC Quiz
MIDI Quiz
Software Testing Quizzes
Testing Quiz
Firewalls Quiz
SAP Module Quizzes
ERP Quiz
ABAP Quiz
Business Warehousing Quiz
SAP Basis Quiz
Material Management Quiz
Sales & Distribution Quiz
Human Resource Quiz
Netweaver Quiz
Customer Relationship Management Quiz
Production and Planning Quiz
Networking Programming Quizzes
Corba Quiz
Networking Quiz
Microsoft Office Quizzes
Microsoft Word Quiz
Microsoft Outlook Quiz
Microsoft PowerPoint Quiz
Microsoft Publisher Quiz
Microsoft Excel Quiz
Microsoft Front Page Quiz
Microsoft InfoPath Quiz
Microsoft Access Quiz
Accounting Quizzes
Financial Accounting Quiz
Managerial Accounting Quiz
Testimonials | Contact Us | Link to Us | Site Map
Copyright 2008. Academic Tutorials.com. All rights reserved Privacy Policies | About Us
Our Portals : Academic Tutorials | Best eBooksworld | Beyond Stats | City Details | Interview Questions | Discussions World | Excellent Mobiles | Free Bangalore | Give Me The Code | Gog Logo | Indian Free Ads | Jobs Assist | New Interview Questions | One Stop FAQs | One Stop GATE | One Stop GRE | One Stop IAS | One Stop MBA | One Stop SAP | One Stop Testing | Webhosting in India | Dedicated Server in India | Sirf Dosti | Source Codes World | Tasty Food | Tech Archive | Testing Interview Questions | Tests World | The Galz | Top Masala | Vyom | Vyom eBooks | Vyom International | Vyom Links | Vyoms | Vyom World
Copyright 2003-2014 Vyom Technosoft Pvt. Ltd., All Rights Reserved.