Deploying an Application to a Production Server
The following topic explains the basic concepts of deploying WebLogic
Workshop applications to WebLogic Server running in production mode.
step-by-step instructions on deploying a WebLogic Workshop application to a
production server see
How Do I: Deploy a WebLogic Workshop Application to a Production Server?.
A D V E R T I S E M E N T
Development Mode and Production Mode
Weblogic Server can be started in one of two modes: development or
production mode. Development mode is the default. When you are developing,
deploying and testing an application with WebLogic Workshop, the instance of
Weblogic Server you are running is in development mode. In
development mode, WebLogic Server behaves in ways that make it easier to
iteratively develop and test an application: it automatically deploys the
current application in an exploded format, server resources such as
databases and JMS queues necessary for the application to run are
automatically created, etc.
When the development cycle is complete, and the application is ready for
use, you deploy it to an instance (or instances) of WebLogic Server running
in production mode. In production mode applications are not
automatically deployed. The server resources necessary for running an
application are not automatically generated, you must generate them
To set the server to start in production mode, you specify the Java
property mode in the startup script as:
For detailed information on starting WebLogic Server in production or
development mode see
WebLogic Workshop produces J2EE enterprise applications for deployment to
a production server. You cannot deploy a web application project alone as a
Web Application Archive (WAR) file; it must be deployed as a part of an
entire application. There are two ways to deploy an application on the
production server: in an exploded directory, or in an archive.
In an archived format, use EAR files if you are deploying an entire
application; or use a JAR file if you are deploying a specific project
within an application, (provided that specific project is a custom Java
control or a Schema project).
You can generate an EAR file for a WebLogic Workshop application either
(1) from the menu bar by selecting Build-->Build EAR or (2)
by using the wlwBuild.cmd command line tool. The
wlwBuild.cmd line tool is somewhat more flexible in that you can set flags
to build a JAR file for a specific project, instead of building an EAR file
for the entire application.
For information generating an ANT build.xml file that calls wlwBuild.cmd,
see How Do I:
Call wlwBuild.cmd from an ANT build.xml file?
EAR files can be deployed to WebLogic Server using either (1) the
WebLogic Server console, or (2) the weblogic.Deployer utility.
To use the WebLogic Server console to deploy an EAR file, start the
console, expand the Deployments node in the left-hand pane, right-click the
Applications node, and select Deploy a new Application.
To use the weblogic.Deployer utility see the
Deployment Tools Reference in the WebLogic Server 8.1 documentation.
When you compile an EAR file using Build EAR, a wlw-manifest.xml file is
produced and placed in the application's META-INF directory. This
wlw-manifiest.xml file lists the server resources that must be created on
the production server for the application EAR to run successfully. See the
next section for information relating to the wlw-manifest.xml file.
Note: Values specified in a project's
WEB-INF/wlw-config.xml file, such as hostname, http-port, and https-port,
will be hard-coded into the EAR file. The result will be an EAR file that
can be run only on the machine named in the wlw-config.xml file. For this
reason, it is recommended that you do not write to the wlw-config.xml file
before producing an EAR file. If you need to override the hostname and ports
dynamically determined by the server at runtime, use the
wlw-runtime-config.xml file instead of wlw-config.xml.
Manual Creation of Server Resources
When deploying EAR files to a production server, a certain amount of
manual resource creation is necessary. When an application is built in an
EAR file, a wlw-manifest.xml
file is produced and placed in the application's META-INF directory. This
file lists the JMS queues and database tables that need to be manually
created on the target WebLogic Server for the application to run properly.
Note: When you use iterative builds,
the builds do not include a clean step. To ensure an accurate
wlw-manifest.xml file, make sure your final
build includes a clean step. Otherwise, the contents of the
wlw-manifest.xml may not be correct.
Note: When you are developing and
testing an application with WebLogic Workshop, the creation of the necessary
JMS queues and datatables on WebLogic Server takes places automatically on
Required database tables are indicated by a tag. These tables are used by web services to store
conversational state. For each occurrence of the tag in the wlw-manifest.xml file, you must create a corresponding
datatable on WebLogic Server. For detailed information about the schema
required for these tables, see
How Do I: Deploy a WebLogic Workshop Application to a Production Server?
Required JMS queues are indicated by pairs of
and tags. For each
occurrence of these tags in the wlw-manifest.xml file, you must create a
corresponding JMS queue on WebLogic Server and you must associate
the members of the pair by referencing the
in the ErrorDestination attribute of the . For
detailed information about how to create these queues, see
How Do I: Deploy a WebLogic Workshop Application to a Production Server?
Optionally, you may want to enforce role restrictions on any controls
that receive external callbacks. Controls that can receive external
callbacks are indicated within a
tag in the wlw-manifest.xml file. Since the compilation process turns
control files into individual methods on an EJB, you enforce the role
restrictions on these post-compilation EJB methods.
A WebLogic Server cluster is a deployment in which multiple copies, or
, of an application work together to provide increased
performance, especially in high traffic contexts. In cases where an
application receives a high volume of requests, the different instances of
WebLogic Server in the cluster share the work of processing the requests.
From the client’s point of view, there appears to be only one instance of
WebLogic Server servicing the requests.
Clusters also provide failover
support. Should one instance of the application fail for some reason--for
example, because of a hardware outage--another copy of the application in
the cluster can pick up and complete the tasks left incomplete by the failed
The server instances that make up the cluster can run on a single
machine, or they can run on different machines. Each server instance in a
cluster must run the same version of WebLogic Server.
To learn more about deploying applications to WebLogic Server clusters
WebLogic Server Clusters in the WebLogic Server 8.1 Documentation.
Clustering Workshop Applications
Clusters provide scalability and support failover for web resources. The
basic clustering model consists of the following elements:
One administration server that manages state and configures the other
servers in the cluster
One HTTP proxy server—either a hardware or a software proxy server—which
receives requests from clients and distributes jobs to the other servers
in the cluster
Any number of managed servers that actually do the work of servicing
requests from clients
All configuration of the cluster takes place on the administration server:
all other servers in the cluster use the copy of config.xml on the
administration server. (There may be local copies of
on the managed servers in the cluster, but, these copies
are ignored in favor of the copy
on the administration server.)
The following three required WebLogic
Workshop resources must also be deployed homogeneously across all servers in
A JMS Server is also a required Workshop resource, however, it can only be
deployed to one server in the cluster.
Configuring Clusters in config.xml
Complete syntax for the config.xml file can be found at
WebLogic Server Configuration Reference in the WebLogic Server 8.1
The following sections highlight some of the most important elements
within a cluster-defining config.xml file (located on the administration
server), including the element,
resource deployment, and database support.
The ClusterAddress attribute specifies a
DNS name that maps to the list of IPs of the servers.
ClusterAddress does not give the DNS name of
the multicast address, which does not require a DNS name. The cluster as a
whole can be used as a deployment target. To deploy a J2EE resource to the
entire cluster, use the value of the Name attribute as the target of the
deployment. To learn more, see the -targets
parameter of the deployment tool,
Deployment Tools Reference, in the WebLogic Server 8.1 documentation.
Resources in the cluster—such as database connection pools, data sources,
and JMS servers—are defined in the administration server's
config.xml file. Resources are not by default
universally available across the cluster. The servers they are deployed to
are specified by their Targets attributes.
The connection pool, conversational datasource, and queue connection
factory that Workshop relies on is defined on each managed server in the
cluster. For example, the Targets attribute
on the JDBConnectionPool and
JDBCDataSource elements specifies each
managed server, and each managed server has its own pool of connections.
However, the JMSServers can only be targeted at one server in the
cluster. Currently Workshop only uses one JMSServer that is targeted, by
convention, at the first managed server in the cluster.
Proxy Server Setup
Clusters can use a software proxy server to distribute HTTP requests
across the cluster. The proxy server is also called the sprayer or
load balancer. This software proxy is implemented as a web
application deployed to the proxy server. You configure the proxy by editing
the web.xml descriptor in the proxy application’s WAR file. There are
entries in the descriptor for specifying what IP addresses and ports the
proxy should distribute requests to. For more information about configuring
the proxy server see
Configure Proxy Plug-Ins in the WebLogic Server 8.1 documentation.
When using a proxy, it is necessary to set the hostname, HTTP, and HTTPS
ports on the target cluster, otherwise the target cluster will not know how
to interpret the requested URLs coming from the proxy. You set the hostname
and ports by (1) setting the FrontEnd information through the WebLogic
Server console and (2) in the target cluster's the wlw-runtime-config.xml
Editing the application's wlw-config.xml file is not recommended, because
these values are fixed at compile-time. It is generally best to configure
the hostname and ports through the wlw-runtime-config.xml file, which
overrides the values in the wlw-config.xml.
To set the FrontEnd host and port information using the WebLogic Server
console, open the console, and navigate to
Then edit the Frontend Host, Frontend HTTP port, and Frontend HTTPS port
fields. Note that the Frontend host must be set on each managed server in
the cluster, but should not be set on the administration server. All servers
in the cluster must be restarted for this change to take effect. Configuring
Web Server Functionality for WebLogic Server
To set the host and port information in the wlw-runtime-config.xml file
wlw-runtime-config.xml in the WebLogic Workshop reference documentation.