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Manipulação da lima do Perl

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In PERL files are given a name, also called handle. All the input and output of the file is achieved by filehandling functions. Filehandles are also a means to communicate from one program to another program.


How to assign handles

A filehandle is nothing but name given for the files which you intend to use in your PERL programs and scripts. A handle is a name which is temporarly assigned to a file. The example below shows how to use a file handle in your PERL program.

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
$FilePath = "home/html/myhtml.html"
sysopen(HANDLE, $FilePath, O_RDWR);
printf HANDLE "Welcome to Tizag!";
close (HANDLE);


Files with the die Function

The die function also exists in several other programming languages. It is used to kill your scripts and also helps to pinpoint where/if your code is failing. We use this function as as shown below.

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header

$filepath = "htmlpage.html";

sysopen (HTML, '$filepath', O_RDWR|O_EXCL|O_CREAT, 0755) or die "$filepath cannot be opened.";
printf HTML "<html>\n";
printf HTML "<head>\n";
printf HTML "vtitle>My Home Page</title>";
printf HTML "</head>\n";
printf HTML "<body>\n";
printf HTML "<p align='center'>Here we have an HTML
page with a paragraph.</p>";
printf HTML "v/body>\n";
printf HTML "</html>\n";
close (HTML);

If due to some problem PERL is unable to open or create our file, we will be informed. It is good practice to make use of the die function and we will be using it as we go deeper into the file handling.


How to Open the File

Files can be opened using either of open and sysopen function. for either of the function can pass upto 4 arguments, the first argument is always the file handle, then the file name also known as a URL or filepath, flags, and finally any of the permissions that are to be granted to the file. The following program opens up a previously saved HTML document.

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header

$FH = "filehandle";
$FilePath = "htmlpage.html";

open(FH, $FilePath, permissions);
or
sysopen(FH, $FileName, permission);

Files which are having unusual file names or special characters are all best opened by declaring the URL first, as a variable. This method removes the confusion that might occur when PERL tries to interpret the program. However, filenames require a step for a brief character substitution before which they can be placed into the open statements.


Various File Permissions

File permissions are crucial to the file function and security. For instance, in order to function, a PERL file (.pl) must have executable file permissions in order to function on your web server. Also, you may not want all of your HTML files to be set to allow others to write to them or over them. Here's a listing of what to pass to the open function when working with file handles.

Shorthand Flags:

Entities Definition
< or r Read Only Access
> or w Creates, Writes, and Truncates
>>or a Writes, Appends, and Creates
+< or r+ Reads and Writes
+> or w+ Reads, Writes, Creates, and Truncates
+>> or a+ Reads, Writes, Appends, and Creates

O_ Flags:

Value Definition
O_RDWR Read and Write
O_RDONLY Read Only
O_WRONLY Write Only
O_CREAT Create the file
O_APPEND Append the file
O_TRUNC Truncate the file
O_EXCL Stops if file already exists
O_NONBLOCK Non-Blocking usability

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
use Fcntl; #The Module

sysopen (HTML, '/home/html/htmlpage.html', O_RDWR|O_EXCL|O_CREAT, 0755);
sysopen (HTML, >htmlpage.html');


File Creation

Files are opened and created using the same function "sysopen". Our syntax open(FILEHANDLE, '$filename', permissions, CHMOD); or sysopen(FILEHANDLE, $filename, permissions, CHMOD);

#!/usr/bin/perl
use Fcntl; #The Module

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
sysopen (HTML, 'myhtml.html', O_RDWR|O_EXCL|O_CREAT, 0755);
printf HTML "<html>\n";
printf HTML "<head>\n";
printf HTML "<title>My Home Page";
printf HTML "</head>\n";
printf HTML "<bodyv\n";
printf HTML "<p align='center'>Here we have an HTML
page with a paragraph.</p>";
printf HTML "</body>\n";
printf HTML "</html>\n";
close (HTML);

With sysopen you can also set hexadecimal priviledges; CHMOD values. Sysopen needs the declaration of a new module for PERL. We will now be using the Fcntl module.


Reading from a File

It is easy to read lines from files and then input them using the input operator <>. By placing the file handler inside the input operator, then your script will input that line of the file..

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
$HTML = "htmlpage.html";
open (HTML) or die "Can't open the file!";
print <HTML>;
close (HTML);

Here we have a small PERL script to display several lines of HTML code. Each line is stored into an array and it is automatically printed to the browser in HTML format using the input operator <> .


Copy uma lima

Usando a função da cópia nós podemos duplicar a lima. O copy faz exame de dois argumentos, o URL da lima que necessidades ser copí e o URL da lima/diretório novos a que a lima deve ser copí. Se a mesma lima - o nome está ou o mesmo URL, reescrita do Perl sobre a lima se as permissões permitidas.

#!/usr/bin/perl
use File::Copy;

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
$filetobecopied = "htmlpage.html.";
$newfile = "html/htmlpage.html.";
copy($filetobecopied, $newfile) or die "File cannot be copied.";

Aqui, nós duplicamos simplesmente a lima de “htmlpage.html” e estaremos usando-a nos exemplos futuros. Ao usar o Perl na correia fotorreceptora, é a mais melhor usar o URL completo do Internet. Nós usamos uma maneira do shorthand no exemplo, mas é melhor ao hardcode o URL cheio como: http://www.vyom.co.in/htmlpage.html.


Movendo as limas

Mover a lima requer o uso da função do “movimento”. Esta função trabalha similarmente à função da cópia de acima e nós emitimos o mesmo módulo ao Perl. A diferença é aqui está, em vez copí dos nós apenas “cortados” a lima e emite-a a uma posição nova. Este que funciona é mesmo que o corte e o texto colando do original do escritório a outro.

#!/usr/bin/perl
use File::Copy;

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
$oldlocation = "htmlpage.html";
$newlocation = "html/htmlpage.html";
move($oldlocation, $newlocation);

Nossa lima tem sido removida agora completly de sua posição atual à posição nova.


Suprimindo as limas

Para suprimir limas específicas de seu web server usar “unlink” a função. A mais melhor maneira é frequentemente ajustar um nome variável igual ao URL da lima que você deseja suprimir.

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
$file = "newtext.txt";
if (unlink($file) == 0) {
print "File deleted successfully.";
} else {
print "File was not deleted.";
}


Removendo as limas múltiplas em uma vez

Para remover as limas múltiplas em uma vez, nós devemos primeiramente criar uma disposição das limas que tenha que ser suprimida e então dado laços com cada. Há muitas outras maneiras ir sobre este processo.

#!/usr/bin/perl

print "content-type: text/html \n\n"; #The header
@files = ("newtext.txt","moretext.txt","yetmoretext.txt");
foreach $file (@files) {
unlink($file);
}





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Keywords:perl tutorial, perl scripts, perl programming, active perl, perl download, blackberry perl, perl regular expressions, perl split, perl array, perl script page


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